sábado, 20 de abril de 2013

Plum Tree

Name: Plum Tree

Latin name: Prunus domestica

Foliage:  Deciduous

Mature height: This tree can reach 32,8ft (10m) hight. The top is opened and irregular.

Description: The term "Prunus" comes from latin and is the name of the generus, the word "domestic" refers to native from a place. It is a fruit of the Rosaceae family tree, is native to Europe and Asia, sowing for more than two thousand years in the countries that border the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, specifically in the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Persia.

The trunk is straight and narrow, and the skin is smooth and brown. The young shoots are green and pubescent; the old branches on the other hand, are smooth and brown, sometimes spiny.
The leaves are oval and serrated.
The flowers appear before the leaves, as green brownish and arise in small groups. Its fruit is the plum, round or elongated, of yellow, red, purple or green colors.

Soil and Location: is one of the most rustic and easy to grow fruit trees. The optimum temperature for their development is between 53,6°F to 71,6°F (from 12°C to 22°C), however, depending on the variety, can resist low temperatures quite well. Given its early blossom, it can suffer with spring frosts. However, the flowers are quite resistant to them.

It prefers temperate climates, but it develops well in relatively cold weather. The best option is to cultivate it in well sheltered locations.

It suffers from water scarcity in summer. The fruits and thin branches are sensitive to the winds. It can be grown in altitudes up to 2.296.58ft (700 m).

In terms of soil, the Plum tree tolerates well the limestone, the dampness and compact terrains. Thanks to its superficial root system, tolerates dampness and can lives in shallow land better than other fruit trees, but it is necessary that the basement is cool and without humidity excess.

Irrigation: It is suitable to a moderate, but constant, irrigation that prevents soil to lose humidity.
Traditional irrigation systems are the irrigation by furrows and by flood.

Pruning: The formation of the plum is made in vase or palmet form.

The fruits are mostly "May posies" 1, therefore, fruiting pruning should conserve these small bunches. The branches of wood will be reduced, and at the beginning of spring, this year shoots will be pinched, to bring the sap to the base and make develop the small bunches.
The early shoots needs to be pinched from the moment they begin to develop in order to accelerate the production.

Reproduction: You can multiply by seed, shoots or graft.

Interesting notes: The plum is harvested when the fruit starts to change its color to red or purplish, if its consumption is going to be soon; or they are harvested when the plums are slightly greens and when are not ripe if its consumption is going to be late. In the case of the prune, they are left to ripen on the tree and are collected when they fall to the ground. The plum harvest is done mostly by hand, by twisting the stem of the fruit carefully and pulling.

The main component of the plum is water, is rich in phosphorus, calcium and potassium. Also have carbohydrates, including sorbitol, of mild laxative action, which is reinforced by their abundance in fiber. Also, it is characterized by anthocyanins (pigments of antioxidant and antiseptic action).

Plum is currently distributed in mild temperate regions around the world and in the mountainous tropical areas of Latin America and Africa. Likewise, it is designated as the main producers of the fruit to Spain, United States, Italy, Japan, Greece and China.

Plums are eaten fresh, dried, glazed or in jam. The plum is laxative.

Thinning of plum fruits

The fruit thinning is a task that is made with fruit trees, to reduce the weight to the branches. This is made to have larger size fruits instead of more very small fruits. This task can be indispensable in many fruit trees, such as pear, apple tree and plum trees.
“May posies "1: is a very short branch, typically between 1,59in and 3,15in (4-8 cm), with several flower buds so close together and a wood terminal bud.

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